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15-Aug-2017 10:58

The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state.

The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system.

Typically, each body segment has one ganglion on each side, though some ganglia are fused to form the brain and other large ganglia.

The head segment contains the brain, also known as the supraesophageal ganglion.

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We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the decade of 1950 (Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and John Eccles).There is an anatomical convention that a cluster of neurons in the brain or spinal cord is called a nucleus, whereas a cluster of neurons in the periphery is called a ganglion.There are, however, a few exceptions to this rule, notably including the part of the forebrain called the basal ganglia Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve cord made up of two parallel connectives running along the length of the belly.In the insect nervous system, the brain is anatomically divided into the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum.

Immediately behind the brain is the subesophageal ganglion, which is composed of three pairs of fused ganglia.Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily.